Currently over 80% of our energy comes from fossil fuels. However these fuels are the major sources of the green house gas pollutants which lead to severe environmental degradation including climate change. Energy from non-polluting sources – like biomass, solar and wind – is under development worldwide. Due to the recent exciting research and technological advances, it is now technically feasible to produce conventional transportation fuels like diesel and gasoline from biomass like sugarcane bagasse and municipal / forest wastes. Solar energy, in addition to generating electricity directly (photo-voltaics), can also produce liquid fuels, like diesel. Waste gases like CO from steel/cement/power/chemical plants can be catalytically converted to transport fuels like ethanol & diesel. This talk by Padmashree Dr. Paul Ratnasamy describes some of these technologies and their potential adoption in large commercial plants.